SmartPLS-4 is a versatile tool that enables researchers to estimate intricate models featuring numerous constructs and indicator variables. It excels in the estimation of reflective and formative constructs offering a high degree of flexibility when it comes to data prerequisites.

This software is widely employed for Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), with a special focus on Partial Least Squares (PLS) path modeling. Researchers favor it for its efficiency, particularly in situations where other SEM techniques fall short in meeting data requirements, rendering it suitable for scenarios involving small sample sizes and non-normal data distributions.

SmartPLS 4 proves particularly beneficial in the context of exploratory research, especially when the aim is to delve into intricate theoretical expansions of established theories or investigate increasing complexities. It greatly facilitates the process of extending and refining existing theories through data analysis.

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